The Middle Colonies held a population of about 65,000, compared to New England’s 120,000 and the Southern Colonies’ 77,000. He decided to administer his government through governors, councils, and other officers appointed by him. The Delaware Colony later separated from Pennsylvania. Constant poverty in Scotland caused a large migration in the middle of the 18th century. From 1692 to 1694, the revolution in England deprived Penn of the governance of his colony. Despite Quaker opposition to slavery, by 1730 colonists had brought about 4,000 slaves into Pennsylvania. The document was most likely a forgery; nonetheless, the Provincial Secretary set in motion a plan to grab as much land as possible. After one of the proprietors sold part of the area to the Quakers, New Jersey was divided into East Jersey and West Jersey—two distinct provinces of the proprietary colony. Slaves could testify in court, sign legal documents, and bring civil actions against whites. German immigration greatly increased around 1717, and many immigrants began coming from the Rhineland in western Germany. Because of various colonial masters in the area, religious traditions from many European countries existed in the area. European ethnic groups as manifold as English, Swedes, Dutch, Germans, Scots-Irish and French lived in closer proximity than in any location on continental Europe. Some townships emerged as important ports for shipping to New York and Philadelphia. The Middle Colonies tended to mix aspects of the New England and Southern Colonies. In 1702, the two provinces were reunited under a royal, rather than a proprietary, governor. William Penn founded the Province of Pennsylvania, also known as Pennsylvania Colony, in British America in 1681 by royal charter. Quakers were the primary settlers of Pennsylvania. After Charles II came to the throne, the English became very interested in the Dutch holdings. The Middle colonies consisted of Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, and Delaware. What was the land like in the New England colony during the 1600-1700? The English takeover of New Netherland originated in the imperial rivalry between the Dutch and the English. The Middle Colonies. Seeking to enter the fur trade, the Dutch cultivated close relations with the Five Nations of the Iroquois. The Dutch West India Company had introduced slavery in 1625. Much of the area was part of the New Netherland until the British exerted control over the region. When the colony fell to the British, the Company freed all of its slaves, establishing early on a nucleus of free Africans in the Northeast. Following the American Revolution, the Middle Colonies became the states of New Jersey, Pennsylvania, New York and Delaware. Rather, Fox and his followers stressed that everyone had an “inner light” inside him or her—a spark of divinity. In 1681, William Penn founded the Province of Pennsylvania, also known as Pennsylvania Colony, in British America by royal charter. They primarily pushed farther into the western frontier of the colonies, where they repeatedly confronted American Indians. The American Indian tribes in the area that would be taken by Europeans as New Netherland included Algonquian, Mohawks, Mahican, Wecquaesgeek, Hackensack, Raritan, Canarsee, Tappan, and Minquas. The Middle Colonies included New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania. Much of the area captured by the British from the Dutch in 1664 became the Province of New York. The middle colonies had a more diverse population -apex!! When William Penn received his land grant of Pennsylvania in 1681, he received the Delaware area from the Duke of York and dubbed it “The Three Lower Counties on the Delaware River.” In 1701, after he had troubles governing the ethnically diverse Delaware territory, Penn agreed to allow it a separate colonial assembly. The Middle Colonies tended to mix aspects of the New England and Southern Colonies. Society in the middle colonies was far more varied, cosmopolitan and tolerant than in New England. He attempted to merge the governments of Pennsylvania and Delaware. Their speech reflected this belief in that they addressed all others as equals, using “thee” and “thou” rather than terms like “your lordship” or “my lady” that were customary for privileged individuals of the hereditary elite. From 1682 until 1776, it was part of the Penn proprietorship and was known as the Lower Counties. Delaware Colony became a region of the Province of Pennsylvania, although never legally a separate colony. Turned back by the ice of the Arctic, Hudson sailed up the major river that would later bear his name. The industry and farming skills they brought with them helped solidify the Middle Colonies’ prosperity. The 1790 number is the official count in the first national census undertaken by the federal government under provisions of the Constitution of 1787. William Penn had asked for and later received the lands of Delaware from the Duke of York. By 1685 … The Middle colonies benefited from having a very diverse geography, which lent itself to more economic opportunity than the other colonies. D: The population in the middle colonies was more diverse. Early European colonists in the Middle Colonies included Germans, Scotch-Irish, French Huguenots, Welsh, Dutch, Swedes, Swiss, and Scots Highlanders. American Indian tribes that had long occupied the area later to be conquered as the Middle Colonies included the Mohawk, Mahican, Algonquian Lenape, Wecquaesgeek, Hackensack, Raritan, Canarsee, Munsee, and Minquas. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); The Middle Colonies later became the states of New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware. New Jersey and Delaware had a majority British population as well, with 7–11% German-descended colonists, about a 6% African population, and a small contingent of Swedish descendants. In many ways, Pennsylvania and Delaware owed their initial success to William Penn. The populations of four Colonies—Virginia, Massachusetts, North Carolina and New York—do not include certain territorial claims that became separate states after the Revolution. The Duke of York and the King of England would later grant to others land which became the Provinces of New Jersey and Pennsylvania. William named the capital of his colony as Philadelphia. It encompassed parts of the later states of New Jersey, Delaware, Connecticut, Pennsylvania, and Rhode Island. –“Breadbasket” of the Colonies, trade in foodstuffs, including the Triangle Trade •Demographics –1700: Twice as many people lived in New England than the Middle Colonies –1770: Population of the regions roughly equal –Immigrants—By 1800, 30% of Pennsylvanians and only 50% of the Middle Colonies were of English descent The British Are Coming. The 1610-1780 numbers, except for 1776, are estimates from the “Historical Statistics of the United States: Colonial Times to 1970,” issued by the Census Bureau, which cites as its main sources archival research and the statistical work of various scholars. American colonies, the 13 British colonies that were established during the 17th and early 18th centuries in the area that is now a part of the eastern United States. September 17, 2013. Delaware continued to be a melting pot of sorts and was home to Swedes, Finns, Dutch, and French, in addition to the English, who constituted the dominant culture. Edward Hyde, Lord Cornbury was the first man to govern the colony under its new status of a royal colony. Ex. Delaware changed hands between the Dutch and Swedes between 1631 and 1655. The middle colonies attracted a large population of ethnic and religious diversity. To learn more about the history of this period, have a look at the following books: The Thirteen Colonies; The History of the Thirteen Colonies of North America 1497-1763; A … In 1664, he granted the land to his brother, the Duke of York, before officially owning it. The Middle Colonies tended to mix aspects of the New England and Southern Colonies. The two proprietors of New Jersey attempted to augment their colony’s population by granting sections of lands to settlers and by passing a document granting religious freedom to all inhabitants of New Jersey. In 1609, Henry Hudson, an English explorer, was hired by the Flemish Protestants running the Dutch East India Company in Amsterdam to find a northeast passage to Asia. The Middle Colonies were more cosmopolitan and tolerant than the New England colonies. Most of the early settlers depended on the fur trade and on farming for economic survival. These tribes included the Mohawk, Mahican, Algonquian Lenape, Wecquaesgeek, Hackensack, Raritan, Canarsee, and Tappan. In 1737, the Colony spent a great deal of its political goodwill with the native Lenape in pursuit of more land. The colony and city were renamed New York in his honor. This diversity started at the early years of the colonies. The assembly’s 1683 Charter of Liberties and Privileges set out the traditional rights of Englishmen, like the right to trial by jury and the right to representative government. For two centuries, New Netherland Dutch culture characterized the region, and their concepts of civil liberties and pluralism introduced in the province became mainstays of American political and social life. The Dutch, through their trade of manufactured goods with the Iroquois and Algonquians, presumed they had exclusive rights to farming, hunting, and fishing in the region. The Scots-Irish also began immigrating to the Middle Colonies in waves after 1717. Once colonization had begun, the Middle Colonies were more ethnically diverse than the other British colonial regions in North America and tended to be more socially tolerant. Pennsylvania became a leading exporter of wheat, corn, rye, hemp, and flax, making it the leading food producer in North America from 1725 to 1840. Indentured servitude was especially common in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and New York in the 18th century, though fewer worked in agriculture. King Charles II granted the land for the Pennsylvania Colony to William Penn in 1681 as payment for a debt the crown owed his family. By 1780, about 17% of the population in New York were descendants of Dutch settlers; the rest were mostly English with a wide mixture of other Europeans and about 6% Africans. During the Second Anglo-Dutch War (1664–1667), English forces gained control of the Dutch fur trading colony of New Netherland, and in 1664, Charles II gave this colony (including present-day New Jersey) to his brother James, Duke of York (later James II). There were many great leaders and important people in the middle colonies. The land comprising Delaware was first controlled by the Swedish, then the Dutch, and finally the British in Pennsylvania. American Indian tribes had long occupied the area that was conquered as the British Middle Colonies. Indentured servitude was especially common in the Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and New York in the 18th century, though fewer worked in agriculture. Nowhere was that diversity more evident in pre-Revolutionary America than in the middle colonies of Pennsylvania, New York, New Jersey, and Delaware. In New York's Hudson Valley, however, the Dutch patroons operated very large landed estates and rented land to tenant farmers. The Dutch maintained control of Delaware until 1664, when it was renamed New Castle after the Duke of York. *** Immigrants from Asia flocked to the Middle Colonies. The most populous of the Middle colonies was Pennsylvania, other colonies were settled rather haphazardly over the course of … The Lenape and Susquehanna occupied the land prior to colonization. Upon visiting the colony in 1669 and 1701, Penn eventually agreed to allow their Charter of Privileges to be added to the constitution. Unlike New England, the Middle Colonies had richer, less rocky soil, allowing the area to become a major exporter of wheat and other grains. Landholdings were generally farms of 40 to 160 acres (16–65 hectares), owned by the family that worked it. Penn received the charter for Pennsylvania from Charles II and brought over Quaker dissidents from England, Wales, the Netherlands, and France. The “Holy Experiment” was an attempt by the Religious Society of Friends to establish a community in Pennsylvania. The Middle Colonies flourished economically due to fertile soil, broad navigable rivers, and abundant forests. Abundant forests attracted the lumbering and shipbuilding industries to the Middle Colonies. When one of the proprietors sold his share to the Quakers, this sale divided New Jersey into East Jersey and West Jersey; however, the border between the two remained disputed. The original inhabitants of the area included the Hackensack, Tappan, and Acquackanonk tribes in the northeast, and the Raritan and Navesink tribes in the center of the state. New Jersey remained agrarian and rural throughout the colonial era, and commercial farming developed only sporadically. During this time, many American Indians were displaced. This document provided for religious freedom, no taxes without assembly approval, and a governor appointed by the proprietors. Under his guidance, Pennsylvania functioned smoothly and grew rapidly. The Middle Colonies were more diverse than colonies in New England and the South. The Middle Colonies were a part of the former Thirteen Colonies of the 18th century. Under his guidance, Philadelphia became a fabulous city, with broad, tree-shaded streets, stone and brick houses, and a bustling port. James II later granted the land between the Hudson River and the Delaware River to two friends who had been loyal to him through the English Civil War. Land grants made in connection to the importation of slaves were another enticement for settlers. As they did in other zones of colonization, indigenous peoples played a key role in shaping the history of colonial New York. The Middle Colonies accommodated a diverse mix of religions that included Quakers, Lutherans, Presbyterians, Amish, Congregationalists and Jews. Under his guidance, Pennsylvania functioned smoothly and grew rapidly. Peter led the colony beginning in 1647. The Pennsylvania Assembly took this opportunity to request expanded power for elected officials. From 1701 to 1765, colonists skirmished in the New York-New Jersey Line War over disputed colonial boundaries. In Pennsylvania, sawmills and gristmills were abundant, and the textile industry grew quickly. The Middle Colonies were the most ethnically and religiously diverse of the British colonies in North America, with settlers coming from all parts of Europe and a high degree of religious tolerance. Society/Culture Delaware was at first an all white colony, however in years that came, delaware took on slaves, but in a small number. These immigrants traveled to all of the colonies, but the Middle Colonies attracted the most and continued to be more ethnically diverse than the other colonies. A very important man is William Penn. The Middle Colonies of New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania and Delaware were founded in the early to late 1600s depending on the colony. CC licensed content, Specific attribution, http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/indentured_servant, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Middle_colonies, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New%20Netherland, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New%20England%20Confederation, http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ef/Middle_Colonies_USA.svg, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Amsterdam, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colonial_history_of_the_United_States%23New_Netherland, http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/US_History/English_Colonies%23New_Netherland, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Netherland, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second%20Anglo-Dutch%20War, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty%20of%20Westminster, http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/New_Amsterdam, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Manatvs_gelegen_op_de_Noot_Riuier.jpg, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Delaware_Colony, http://cnx.org/contents/p7ovuIkl@3.30:ZC7sZcO-@3/Charles-II-and-the-Restoration, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Province_of_Pennsylvania, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William%20Penn, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lower%20Counties, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:The_Birth_of_Pennsylvania_1680_cph.3g07157.jpg, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Middle_Colonies%23Demographics, http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Pennsylvania_Dutch, http://books.google.com/books?id=GFNJAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA170&img=1&zoom=3&hl=en&sig=ACfU3U24DCz_974ZR0MnJwEWZaA2zaSTKg&ci=120,404,747,248&edge=0. A: Most people in the middle colonies were Puritan. In 1776, Great Britain's population was roughly three times the size of the Colonies. Delawareans would meet in New Castle and Pennsylvanians would gather in Philadelphia. Identify the cultural groups that made up the Middle Colonies. This led to significantly better relations with the local tribes such as the Lenape and Susquehanna than most other colonies had. Penn wrote the Frame of Government of Pennsylvania, which called for religious tolerance towards many, including local American Indians and the Religious Society of Friends. In the end, the Penns gained 1,200,000 acres of land in what is now northeastern Pennsylvania, an area roughly equivalent to the size of the state of Rhode Island. Quakers because they were erroneously labeled the Pennsylvania colony, Penn governed Pennsylvania, New Jersey exploration. 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